How does an electric car work? How Electric Vehicles Work

Electric vehicle (Vidyut Jaan) is now very popular in big cities.  The main reason behind so much popularity of Electric Vehicles is that it is wordless and does not pollute the environment.

If we talk about the current problem, then one of the main problems is pollution and the main reason for this is due to more number of petrol and diesel engines.  This is how electric vehicles can become a solution to avoid the CO2 and harmful gas produced by petrol and diesel engines.

So let’s know in full detail what is an electric vehicle and how it works.

How does an electric car work?  How Electric Vehicles Work

How does an electric car work?  How Electric Vehicles Work 

An electric vehicle or electric car is a simple car in which one or more induction motors are installed instead of internal combustion.  This motor is driven through the energy stored in the battery, which is why Ev car makes less sound than a car running on petrol/diesel.

The cost or expense of an electric vehicle is a lot.  The main reason for the low cost is a lot of maintenance.  There is a very simple process in an electric vehicle, so it does not have to be repaired and maintained again and again.

Electric car gives more mileage than petrol / diesel car, that is, if we calculate, then where petrol car costs about 8Rs for 1km, the same electric car costs 80 paise for 1km.  By this you can imagine how electric vehicle can save both our money and environment.

Types of Electric Vehicles.  Types of Electric Vehicles

There are mainly 2 types of vehicles in the electric vehicle sector, in which

  • BEV means battery electric vehicle and the other is
  • PHEV stands for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

BEV electric vehicle runs entirely on electricity.  It consists of a battery pack which is charging and with its help the induction motor present inside the vehicle helps in movement of the vehicle.

This car runs completely on electricity, that is why there is no sound (word) or any emission in it, for which it is very beneficial for our environment.

It takes approximately 45 minutes to 24 hours to charge an electric vehicle depending on the charging point and the model of the vehicle.

Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

The PHEV model vehicle has a mixture of two types of engines, firstly it can run on electric charging and it can also run on petrol/diesel.

This model car is beneficial as well as does harm.  It is beneficial because if you are traveling somewhere long distance, it will help you and due to the behavior of fuel in it, such vehicle will also pollute the environment.

It may require some maintenance as two types of systems are available in it and machinery is also used more.

How does an electric car work?  How Electric Vehicle Works

The working process of an electric vehicle is very simple, which consists of a battery pack, induction motor, and an inverter.

When we put the vehicle in charging, then the battery gets charged and the electrical energy in it remains in the form of DC but to run our induction motor, AC current is required so inverter is needed which converts to DC.  Converts AC.

The motor is connected to the two wheels of the vehicle.  When the driver starts the motor and sends a signal to the controller through the accelerator medium, the vehicle moves forward or backward.

The vehicle is controlled by the existing braking system in the vehicle and while braking in this medium to regenerative braking energy is used to charge the battery again.

Parts used in electric vehicles.  Components of Electric Vehicles

Some kind of electrical components are used in it to run the electric sisters, let us know what is used.

  • Motor
  • Reducer
  • Battery
  • On board Charger

Electric Power Control Unit (EPCU)


The main function of the motor is to convert electrical energy into kinetic energy which helps in rotating the wheel of the car.

The most advantage of doing motor behavior is that it does not make any sound and there is no vibration.


The speed of the motor used in the EV car, that is, the RPM is very high, to earn this speed or to increase the speed of the vehicle, reducer is needed.

Battery Pak

The battery is the most important thing in an electric vehicle because everything in the vehicle depends on the battery itself.  The higher the capacity of the battery, the more mileage the vehicle will be able to deliver.

A battery can take from 45 minutes to 24 hours to charge.  The charging of the battery depends on its charging station.  Now Lithium Ion is used to make the battery more powerful and longer lasting.

On Board Charger(OBC)

The on board charger is used to charge the battery.  OBC converts Alternating Current (AC) into Direct Current (DC) in or outside our house.  Therefore the gravity of OBC increases even more because with its help we will be able to charge EV car or bike.

Electric Power Control Unit (EPCU)

EPCU is needed to control the electric current in the car, in which many components are connected.


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